The paleolithic diet, regularly referred to as the paleo diet, or caveman diet, is a set of nutritional guidelines, founded upon what we believe Stone-Age cavemen ate, during the paleolithic era. Vegetables, fruits, fish, meats from grass-fed animals, nuts and eggs are all part of the Stone-Age diet. Foods that are banned by the caveman diet are refined sugars, all dairy products, grains, potatoes and legumes. The Paleolithic era began over 2.5 million years ago and ended approximately 10,000 years ago and that is when agricultural and grain based diets developed. Since then, humans have evolved and tried to optimize their health through all sorts of nutritional and exercise plans. Relatively recently, our continuing quest to find the superhuman diet, has lead many to believe that the paleo diet is supreme and it's popularity has grown exponentially. Is the key to longevity to abandon our modern agricultural diets are revert back to the diets of pre-historic man? Is the adorned primal blue print the Bible for nutritional science? Should we religiously follow the primal diet? Not so fast. Eating more animals and eliminating grains and dairy might not be your best bet. Paleo advocates claim that today's agricultural diets make us chronically ill, so we change and eat more like our ancestors did over 10,000 years ago. Paleo fans say our forefathers had a diet containing  plenty of meat, supplemented with some veggies and fruits, nuts, oils.  This diet was free of  any grain, legumes or dairy. The fact is, there is no truly optimal paleo diet as it is impossible to create one. Sorry to break hearts, but there isn't a magical diet that if followed correctly, will make you a super human. Want to be a real neanderthal? OK, then you need to eat wild broccoli, blueberries and bananas. Don't eat chicken injected with steroids or cows raised with growth. Broccoli in the supermarket is far different from wild broccoli. Many vegetables and fruits are vastly different today than they were 10,000 years ago. Just Google wild broccoli or wild banana. How does that broccoli flower look? Does that wild banana filled with a zillion seeds look appetizing? Didn't think so. Programming your mind to eat solely X, Y and Z is not bright. Diversity and variety are the spices of life and trying to stick to one form of what you or your book claims the paleo diet to be, is not as beneficial as you think it is and in fact it may be detrimental. Maintaining a highly diverse diet is of the utmost importance. That is the crucial ideology that one should remain loyal to. Fresh foods, ripe in the season, are optimal. Some foods preserve well like seeds and nuts. It is also really important to eat whole foods. Not just the vitamins we need from the food, but the entire food itself. The globalized processing of foods leads to us not having the fiber and pectin in fruit juice because it gets filtered out. Eat more fresh and whole foods in order to get more vitamins, minerals, fibers, proteins, fats, carbohydrates and antioxidants from your food.